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Inflammatory status of the hoof wall, is due to histamine produced by some rumen bacteria under low pH.
- The etiology of laminitis is multi-faceted, but is generally the result of prolonged exposure to low rumen pH that is caused by nutritional factors that lead to acidosis.12ReferenceView allNocek J. E. 1997.
Bovine Acidosis: Implications on Laminitis. J Dairy Sci 80:1005-1028. 36ReferenceView allLean I.J., Westwood C.T., Golder H.M., Vermunt J.J. 2013.
Impact of nutrition on lameness and claw health in cattle. Livestock Science, 156 : 71-87. 37ReferenceView allHuxley J.N. 2013.
Impact of lameness and claw lesions in cows on health and production. Livestock Science, 156 : 64-70.
- The initial activation of laminitis starts with the low rumen pH, lysis or death of gram-negative bacteria lead to the release of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component which is a very potent stimulator of inflammation.
- Histamine is also produced by some rumen bacteria under low pH, and by an animal under stress. Histamine is also an inflammatory compound. Due to repeated acid insults on the rumen and the hindgut wall, the epithelial barrier is disrupted and these inflammatory molecules can be transferred to the bloodstream.
- Histamine production leads to an inflammatory condition in the animal that can weaken the laminar structure in the hoof wall, thus leading to laminitis.