Glossary

  • Anaerobiosis
    Life conditions without oxygen.
  • Bloat
    Swelling of the abdomen by abnormal accumulation of gas from food fermentation in the rumen and often results in poor ruminating activity.
  • Cellulolytic
    Capacity to hydrolyze cellulose.
  • Cellulose
    The main carbohydrate contained in cell wall of plants. Cellulose is digested by ruminants thanks to enzyme produced by some cellulolytic bacteria.
  • Chronic inflammation
    Response of the immune system to transformations of the environment. Chronic inflammation can’t be cured spontaneously and can to worsen.
  • Digestibility
    Capacity to be digested (difference between intake and fecal output), in %.
  • Fermentable carbohydrate
    Sugars easily fermented by the digestive system. They are composed of short chains of sugar molecules easily broke down by bacteria. They can contribute to gastrointestinal problems.
  • Fibrolytic
    Capacity to hydrolyze fibers.
  • Hemicellulolytic
    Capacity to hydrolyze hemicellulose.
  • Hemicellulose
    The carbohydrate contained in the cell wall of plants. It is a polysaccharide less complex than cellulose and easily hydrolysable to monosaccharides thanks to hemicellulolytic enzyme.
  • Histamine
    Vasomotor amine released by bacteria activity during a decrease in ruminal pH. Histamine has an effect on blood vessels causing an inflammation that can weaken the laminar structure in the hoof wall.
  • Lignin
    Complex organic polymers in the cell wall of plants. Less easy to hydrolyse, lignin is digested by fungi thanks to their rhizoids.
  • Lipopolysaccharide
    Essential component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria. This molecule is released in the bloodstream can induce inflammatory responses.
  • Metabolizable protein
    It is the total amount of amino acid and proteins absorbed in the small intestine, which result from rumen-undegradable proteins and microbial proteins. Metabolizable protein will be used by the animal in several metabolic processes, such as milk production, immune system function, reproduction and more.
  • Microbiota
    A microbiota is the whole of the ecosystem (bacteria, yeast, fungi and viruses) living in a specific environment. Intestinal microbiota was previously called “intestinal flora.”
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